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企业就职理工科博士职业成功影响因素的研究
中文摘要

博士生教育是学历教育的最高层次,承担高层次创新人才培养的重任。从世界范围内看,随着知识经济的发展,博士不再局限于从事教学科研工作,特别是理工科博士,他们进入企业、政府,及社会其他工作部门,从事专业领域的技术研发、咨询或管理工作。那么以学术职业为目标而设计的博士生教育如何影响了从事非学术职业博士的职业发展是值得关注的。本研究采用定量研究、定性研究以及定量与定性研究相结合的混合研究方法,研究企业就职理工科博士职业成功的影响因素,为加强我国理工科博士生教育与非学术职业的衔接提供参考依据。 通过对116名企业就职的理工科博士的问卷调查,运用Logistic回归方法,分析能力、社会网络两个因素对博士职业晋升的影响;运用线性回归方法,分析能力、社会网络两个因素对博士工作满意度的影响。研究发现,对于企业就职理工科博士的晋升来说,社会网络更加重要;对于提高工作满意度来说,能力和社会网络都重要;能力和社会网络能互相促进,共同对职业成功产生作用。 通过对19位博士进行教育经历和工作经历的访谈,分析各项因素在博士职业成功过程中的作用。研究发现,个人特质、能力、社会网络、博士生教育经历、工作经历、背景因素、自我效能感和结果期待共同对博士职业成功发挥作用。 通过对定量研究与定性研究结果的综合分析发现,职业境况不同的博士对职业成功的归因不同。晋升满意组的博士,关注人际交往能力、良好品格与工作态度,同时拥有组织内外部的社会网络,从博士生教育中收获相对广泛的一般能力,更重视有突出的工作表现,更主动融入企业环境,由博士生教育与工作经历建立更多的自我效能感,更倾向于根据个人能力与努力程度来判断未来职业发展可能性,有更多元化的职业期待。晋升不满意组博士最重视领导的作用,缺少家人朋友、客户、国内外同行的支持,感到有工作负担,不适应企业环境,根据是否拥有丰富职场经验判断未来职业晋升可能性。未晋升满意组博士,缺少国内外同行的关系网络,主动融入企业环境,根据晋升空间和机会来判断未来职业发展可能性。未晋升不满意组博士关注的能力较为分散,缺少客户关系网络,由消极心理状态和失败晋升经历产生较低的自我效能感,因当前工作平台无法满足发展需求而有离职意向。 为了给我国博士生教育改革提供借鉴,本文分析欧洲国家为博士多元化职业做准备的实践经验。发现英国和德国的博士生教育都注重以学术训练为核心,设置可迁移技能训练,提供基于自我反思的职业支持。 综合分析后认为:能力和社会网络是影响博士职业成功的基本条件,博士生教育与工作经历是影响博士职业成功的重要基础,组织背景与主观心理环境是影响博士职业成功的重要背景因素,自我效能感与结果期待是影响博士职业成功的重要认知因素,英德博士生教育多元化职业导向的改革为我国提供了借鉴。 为培养企业就职博士提出建议:加强非学术职业理念的推广,拓展博士生能力的培养宽度,为博士生创造丰富的工程项目经历,提供针对博士生的职业咨询与辅导。 关键词:理工科博士,企业,职业成功,博士生教育,非学术职业

英文摘要

Doctoral education and doctoral graduates are seen as important components of the ‘Knowledge-based Economy’. The purpose of doctorate programs has traditionally been academic knowledge production and the supply of new university staff. However, the percentage of PhD recipients employed in non-academic sectors has been increasing and in particular in engineering fields. They enter government, research governments and companies. Policy makers and academics alike are increasingly call upon to pay attention to how current doctoral education prepare their graduates for non-academic career. The purpose of this research is to explore and describe the factors that have been beneficial for PhD’ career success in firms. Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT) is applied to the career success domain. A concurrent mixed method design is utilized to collect both quantitative and qualitative data. Each data source is collected independently and then analyzed separately. The quantitative analysis is based on 116 surveys obtained from PhDs in science and engineering who work at firms in China. The in-depth interviews are conducted with 19 PhD workers. The qualitative data is analyzed based on both a deductive approach guided by theory and an inductive technique that reflects themes, which emerged from the data. The quantitative findings show that the both competencies and social networks have positive influence on career satisfaction. It is also found that the odds of career promotion is determined by social networks. The results also reveal that competencies and social networks interact in a positive way with respect to career satisfaction and promotion. The qualitative analysis provides an in-depth understanding of the factors related to career success of PhD workers, and how these factors influence individual career development. The findings identify personal attributes, professional and general competencies, social networks, doctoral education, work experience, contextual factors, self-efficacy, out-expectation are related to career success of PhDs. In the phase of the integration of the quantitative and qualitative data, the study firstly quantify qualitative data to compare the data directly with statistical results. Based on career information, 19 PhDs are divided into four groups. The study then makes counts of occurrences of each theme and compares the frequency of these themes with four groups. A group comparison approach to illuminate more clearly how eight factors influence PhDs’ career development. Secondly, based on the results obtained from group comparison, the study compares the quantitative results and the qualitative findings in a table, a joint display, which further illustrates that different competencies and diverse social networks have positive impact on PhDs’ career development. This article identifies the principal changes in European doctoral education practices. Three types of changes were identified: continue to maintain excellence in research training, create/promote opportunities for doctoral candidates to gain transferable skills, provide career-related support for doctoral candidates to promote self-awareness for existing skills and attributes. Recommendations are derived both from the research conducted and from the literature reviewed. We need to widen recognition of the doctorate as an appropriate background for a non-academic career. The practice of both research training and transferable skills training could be extended. It is essential to provide opportunities for doctoral candidates to gain experience of engineering project. Each institution is urged to offer careers advisory services for doctoral candidates. KEY WORDS: PhD in science and engineering, firm, career success, doctoral education, non-academic career

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