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非法吸收公众存款罪实证研究
中文摘要

本文是对非法吸收公众存款罪及相应的非法吸收公众资金行为之治理方式的实证研究。概括来说,是通过该罪的实证状况反映出的我国司法实践对非法吸收公众资金行为的治理困境之归集,结合对非法吸收公众存款罪适用之结果犯和法益保护的异变分析,借鉴域外法律制度,提出刑事犯罪非罪化之考量条件并论证非法吸收公众存款罪之非罪化,同时建构刑法规制之优化与民事权利主张和行政强制监管之刑罚替代措施的综合治理体系,以实现刑事治理手段的精准运用,做到罪刑法定和罪责刑相适应,实现对吸收公众资金行为的优化治理。 全文共分七章予以阐述。第一章非法吸收公众存款罪之概览,从该罪的刑法规制、行政监管和治理形势的现状出发,总结该罪的立法全过程,深入解构法条,并与相近罪名和民事行为予以比较。第二章非法吸收公众存款罪适用现状之定量分析和第三章之定性分析,用实证的方法具体展示当前该罪的司法现状。第四章非法吸收公众存款罪适用现状之检讨,系在前述该罪基础理论和司法实证基础上的分析归纳,论述了该罪适用之违背立法初衷、便宜追究刑责、阻碍民间融资、背离基本民意等现状。第五章吸收公众资金行为治理之域外比较,重点介绍了美国和德国关于吸收公众资金行为治理的法律制度,给我国相应的治理方式提供借鉴。第六章非法吸收公众存款罪之非罪化,通过非罪化之含义和原由的提炼,总结出客观行为之必要、刑法规制之无效、比较法上之认可和法律体系之替代等四个非罪化考量条件,并论证非法吸收公众存款罪之非罪化,以及相应行为刑法规制之优化。第七章非法吸收公众资金行为治理之刑罚替代措施,运用犯罪生成模式理论,探求非法吸收公众存款罪的生成因素和生成机理,顾及刑法规制的局限性,讨论民事权利主张和行政监管控制之刑罚替代措施。 在探求刑法规制无效果与行政监管缺失和民事权利主张通道不畅存在紧密关联的过程中,本文的研究可能具有五个创新之处。第一,运用2048份裁判文书和两套调查问卷的定量分析与两例个案讨论和一个行业分析的定性研究相结合的科研方法,从裁判文书、调查问卷、个案展示、行业分析等四个维度,全角度展示了非法吸收公众存款罪之适用困境,多维度论证了该罪之非罪化的必要性并强化刑罚替代措施的有效性。第二,创设非法吸收公众资金行为的生成模式,运用犯罪生成模式理论对非法吸收公众资金行为予以分析,建构“带菌个体”(不法分子)与“致罪因素”(被害人资本),加“催化剂”(融资需求、政府介入、公众人物影响、媒体不良诱导)导致犯罪的生成模式。第三,拟订非罪化之考量条件,为一个行为从构成个罪到废除个罪提供考量标准。第四,论证非法吸收公众存款罪之非罪化,充分考查此类行为中的受害人过错、司法机关选择性执法等对罪刑法定、罪刑均等、罪责刑相适应和主客观相一致等基本原则的破坏,运用非罪化之考量条件论证非法吸收公众存款罪之非罪化。第五,提出刑法规制优化与刑罚替代措施相结合的综合治理方式,发挥民事权利主张和行政监管控制的积极干预措施,建议采用集团诉讼和公益诉讼的纠纷解决机制,引入行政监管“沙盒”制度,保护和促进新金融的发展,维护投资者的合法权益。 关键词:非法吸收公众资金行为 非罪化 犯罪生成模式 刑罚替代措施 中图分类号:D 925

英文摘要

This paper is a practical study on the crime of illegally absorbing public deposits and the management of the behaviors of illegal absorption of public funds. In summary, through the reflection of the governance dilemma of our judicial reality on the crime of illegally absorbing public deposits by the actual situation of the crime, this paper puts forward the conditions of non-criminalization and discusses the non-criminalization of illegally absorbing public deposits by analysing the changes of the result crime and the protected legal interests in the crime of illegally absorbing public deposits and drawing lessons from extraterritorial legal system, and meanwhile, constructs an integrated governance system consisting of the optimized criminal regulation and the alternative measures of penalty including the claims of civil rights and mandatory administrative supervision in order to achieve the precise use of criminal governance measures, abide by the principle of legality and the adaption for crime and punishment, and carry out optimal governance for illegally absorbing public deposits. The full paper is divided into seven chapters. The first chapter is a summary of the basic information of the crime of illegally absorbing public deposits, starting from the current situation of criminal regulation, administrative supervision and governance situation of this crime, then summarizing the whole process of its legislation, analyzing the legal provisions deeply and then comparing it with similar criminal charges and civil acts. The quantitative analysis and the qualitative analysis of the crime of illegally absorbing public deposits in the second and third chapter concretely demonstrates the current judicial status quo of the crime through empirical method. The fourth chapter is the review of the status quo of the crime of illegally absorbing public deposits, which is based on the above analysis and summaries of the basic theory and judicial practice of this crime, and the discussion of the status quo that the application of this crime has violated the original intent of the legislation, caused the simplification of criminal prosecution, hindered private financing, and deviated from the basic public opinion according the adaption of this crime. The fifth chapter is the comparison with the extraterritorial governance for the behaviors of absorbing public funds. It mainly introduces the legal system of absorbing public funds in the United States and Germany to provide reference for our country's governance. The sixth chapter discusses the non-criminalization of illegally absorbing public deposits. Through the extraction of the definition and reasons of non-criminalization, this chapter summarizes the four conditions of non-criminalization including the necessity of objective behavior, the invalidation of criminal law, the recognition of comparative law and the alternative of legal system, and discusses the non-criminalization of illegally absorbing public deposits and the optimization of the criminal regulation on the relevant behaviors. The seventh chapter is the alternative measures for governance of illegal absorption of public funds behavior, using the theory of crime-generating mode to explore the causal factors and mechanism of this crime, taking the limitation of criminal law and regulation into account, and discussing alternative measures including claims of civil rights and administrative supervision. In the research of this paper, there are five innovative points in the process of exploring the relations among the ineffectiveness of the regulation of criminal law, the lack of administrative supervision and the poor access to the civil rights claim. The first is the combination of quantitative analysis of 2048 verdicts and two questionnaires, and qualitative analysis of two case study and one industry analysis. This paper fully demonstrates the dilemma of the application of the crime of illegally absorbing public deposits through four dimensions of verdict, questionnaires, case studies and industry analysis, discusses the necessity of non-criminalization of this crime and the effectiveness of the emphasis of alternative measures by multi-dimensions. Secondly, this paper establishes the generating mode of illegal fund-raising of public funds, analyzes the behavior of illegally absorbing public funds by using the theory of crime-generating mode, constructs the concepts of "carrier-infected individuals" (criminals) and "criminal elements" (victim’s capital), and "catalyst" (financing needs, government involvement, impact of public figures, and the negative induction from media) generating mode of crime. The third is the formulation of non-criminal considerations through considering the conditions for a behavior to constitute a crime and the conditions of the abolition of a crime. The fourth is the discussion of the non-criminalization of illegally absorbing public deposits. This paper fully investigates the destruction of basic principles of criminal law caused by the fault of the victims and the selective law enforcements of judicial authorities in such behaviors, including the principle of legality, equality of crime and punishment, the compatibility of crime, responsibility and punishment, and the accordance of subjective and objective, and then discusses the non-criminalization of illegally absorbing public deposits on the basis of the conditions of non-criminalization. Fifthly, this paper puts forward the integrated governance mode consisting of optimized criminal law regulation and alternative measures, gives full play to the active intervention measures of claims of civil rights and administrative supervision, and proposes to adopt the dispute settlement mechanism of class action and public interest litigation, and introduces "Sandbox" system of administrative supervision to promote new financial development and safeguard the legal rights and interests of investors. Key Words: Illegal absorption of public funds Non-criminalization Crime generation mode Alternative measures CLC Number: D 925

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