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魏晋南北朝香炉研究
中文摘要

中国焚香行为商周已有之,香炉作为一种焚香用具在焚香行为中发挥着重要作用。 春秋战国时期已经有了比较明确的豆形香炉,这种类型的香炉对后代产生很大的影响。到了汉代可以说迎来了香炉使用的一个高峰,特别是博山炉的出现更是丰富和提高了香炉的水准。而唐代则可以视作是香炉发展的另一个高峰,香炉的造型更加多样,特别是经过制瓷业的发展,佛教的兴盛以及道教的完善等,都为香炉的发展创造了良好的社会环境。 汉唐两朝作为统一且强盛的时代,就香炉本身来说也能展现其发展的完整性。并且由于社会的发展以及大环境的稳定,使得有高超技艺和审美水准的香炉得以制作和保存,作为汉唐之间魏晋南北朝时期香炉的发展则有着明显不同。 魏晋南北朝时期本身是一个三百多年的分裂状态,朝代更迭比较频繁。特别是西晋以后,北方少数民族入驻中原,在汉化的过程中也携带着自己的文化风格,而原来在北方的汉族则大举南迁,造成了整个中国南北方的各种差异。 本文试图分析研究出属于这一时代香炉发展的特征。本文主要利用了出土实物资料、相关图像资料以及文献资料。其中实物资料主要包括陶瓷类和金属类香炉,图像主要包括石窟寺、单体造像、造像碑以及墓葬壁画画像石、画像砖等。第一、二章主要是收集梳理与香炉有关的材料,就出土实物方面主要采用了考古学类型学的方法,进行了型式学划分。对典型图像资料则进行分类择要介绍,而后依据初步分析研究的结果,对相关问题进行了重点讨论。实物方面主要集中于地理分布、墓葬环境以及与制瓷业的关系等问题的关注。图像方面则偏向地域方面以及宗教与日常生活的问题。最后以鹊尾式长柄香炉为例,专题讨论了在外来佛教的影响下,与我国本土已有的长柄香炉的关系,并提出这种香炉极有可能是本土发明制造的。 从出土的香炉实物本身来看,地域分布总体上有着南多北少的特征,材质上则是以陶瓷香炉所占比重较大。这可能与南北方人生活习惯的差异有关,也可能与制瓷业在南方发展较快,而在北方相对落后有关。就出土香炉的墓葬等级来看,则大部分都是有一定等级的墓葬,说明这一时期的焚香用香群体还是以社会上层人士为主。不同瓷窑的发展以及生活习惯,使得大多数陶瓷香炉出现在南方,不同类型的陶瓷香炉所流行的时间和区域都有一定的区别。陶瓷香炉虽然有的品种出现时间很短,但仍表现出一种创造力。另外陶瓷香炉中托盘足炉数量逐渐增多,在南朝流行起来,为唐朝香炉的发展开辟了新的领域。相对来说金属香炉在全国分布比较分散,造型上也更多地延续汉代的香炉造型传统,略显保守,但是出土金属香炉的墓葬规格还是比较高的。 出现在图像中的香炉在地域分布方面同样存在南北差异,总的来说是北多南少。北方的香炉形象主要出现在石窟寺、单体造像和造像碑中,带有较强的宗教性,特别是佛教艺术以及集中在陕西地区的道教艺术,而墓葬图像中出现香炉的情况较少。焚香是佛教道教许多仪式的重要组成部分,北方的石窟寺、单体造像和造像碑中的香炉形象,除了单独出现,还多出现在礼拜和行香这样的宗教用香场景中。但是出土与宗教明确相关的香炉实物却十分少见。南方出现香炉形象的图像则主要集中于南朝墓葬当中,相对于北方来说,更贴近日常生活中香炉的运用以及本土神仙世界的想象。即使有的带有佛教元素,但比起真正严格的佛教图案,更倾向于认为这是一种本土化的神仙装饰图案。 博山炉作为这一时期香炉的特殊组成部分,则更是穿插在各种香炉表现方式之间。在实物和图像,日常生活和宗教仪式当中,都有关于博山炉的表现。前朝流行的博山炉在这一时期发生了变化。在实物当中,无论是南方北方还是陶瓷金属,博山炉已经不再多见且越到后代数量越少,比较精美的传统博山炉实物在国内几乎没有发现。但是在图像和文献中却记载着这一时期精美博山炉的使用情况。画像砖墓中对于日常使用博山炉的刻画,以及宗教艺术中对于使用博山炉的表现,证明无论是宗教仪式还是日常生活,博山炉都有着自己的一席之地。 同样是由于这一时期的特性,中国与西域,中国与东亚的交流都十分密切,这在香炉上也有体现。一种情况体现在香炉图像上,特别是陕西地区的佛教、道教和拜火教香炉图像的交融关系上;另一种情况则是,犍陀罗大香炉与韩国百济香炉在形象上表现出的,中国文化的过度桥梁作用。 总的来说,魏晋南北朝时期,是一个在混乱状态下积极吸收各方文化并且坚持与外方交流的时代,更是一个承上启下,继往开来的时代,隋唐以后的许多制度与思想文化即肇始于这一特殊的时期,香炉作为后世发展的一种常见器物也能够体现这一时代特性。 关键词:魏晋南北朝 香炉 考古学研究

英文摘要

Incense burning has been existed for a long time since Shang and Zhou dynasty in China. And incense burners play an important role in the operation of incense burning. The incense burners of later periods were related to the Dou style incense burners that began to exist in Eastern Zhou Dynasty. And the development of incense burners in Han Dynasty was quite well, especially the design of Boshan Lu that made the use of incense burners being in an elegant level. Then in the Tang Dynasty, incense burners received a second spring. The development of porcelain manufacture, the introduction of Buddhism and the improvement of Taoism also promoted the use of incense burners in Tang Dynasty. Being in a powerful and united country during Han Dynasty and Tang Dynasty, the development of incense burners showed its integrity. And because of the stability of society, the incenses burners could be manufactured and saved perfectly. But it was the different situation in the period from Wei Jin to the Southern and Northern Dynasties. In these periods, different forces divided the whole nation and the dynasties changes very quickly. Especially after Western Jin Dynasty, north minorities came into the Central Plains. The north minorities were influenced by Han culture, meanwhile they also influenced Han culture. And the Han people who used to be living in the Central plains had to move to the south part of China. Differences between North and South came into being. We tried to figure out the characteristic of incense burners and related questions in these periods by using different materials including ancient remains from archaeological excavation, image materials and ancient texts. The image materials also include cave temples, sculptures, tablets and mural in graves. Firstly, I collected the archaeological material objects and analyzed them by using typological method. Then I introduce some of the typical image materials and discuss some related issues according to the analysis results of the image materials. About the material objects, I put focus on the porcelain making industry, the background of the ancient remains, the level and the location of these graves which had incense burners. After that, the relation between incense burners and daily life and religious life was also being discussed, especially in the image materials. At last, a special kind of incense burners known as long-handle incense burners was being mentioned. From the discovery of incense burners, it is able to find out that most of the graves contained incense burners located in the south part of China. And compared with ceramics, the metal incense burners were not that many. By analyzing the level of the graves, the owner of the incense burners may came from the upper classes of society during the periods. The different live style and different level of porcelain industry during those periods made most of the incense burners were found in the south part of China. The ceramics showed the creativity, on the contrary, even the metal incense burners were quite fine, they were looked like those in the Han dynasty. The differences between south and north could be found in the image materials, as well. It is different from the objects, the image materials in the north part are more than in the south part. The images of incense burners often appear in the religious art, especially the Taoist art in Shaanxi Province and numerous Buddhist art. But the images of incense burners are less in the background of tombs. Burning incense is an important part of rituals, which were showed in religious art. During the Southern Dynasties, most of the incense burners were related to the daily lives or local fantasies. Even some of the images were like the images in Buddhist art, it is still could be treated as an local elements. But in fact, the material objects of incense burners related to religions were found quite limited. And there is an attention should be put to the Boshan Lu in these periods. It is hard to see the material objects of Boshan Lu during that time. But it is possible to observe them in the images, especially the religious images. In fact, Boshan Lu could be traced in different fields. You could find then in the image materials or the real objects, in the daily life or rituals. Boshan Lu was still playing its role at that time. But unlike in Han dynasty, Boshan Lu was walking to the end of its life then. The communication between China and the Western Regions, between China and East Asia were very close. It can be found by studying the incense burners. When we look at the images of incense burners which were found in Shaanxi province, we could find the mix of Buddhism, Daoism and Zoroastrianism. And from the examples of Gandhara incense burner collected by Metropolitan Museum of Art and the bronze incense burner of Baekje found in Korea, it is able to notice that China is the bridge between them, no matter in the geographical field or the cultural field. In summery, from Wei Jin to the Southern and Northern Dynasties, even during the chaotic time, the communication between different cultures never stopped developing. It is a time of connecting local and exotic cultures, a time of connecting past and future lives. The incense burners, as a common object, also reflected the characteristics of the special ages. Key words: Wei Jin and the Southern and Northern Dynasties, incense burners, archaeology study

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