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船体复杂外板成形智能装备关键技术研究
中文摘要

船舶制造业作为水上交通、海洋资源开发及国防建设的综合性和战略性产业,对我国实施海洋强国战略起着重大支撑作用。但目前我国船舶制造业的自动化装备及技术仍落后于日韩等造船强国。为了改变这一现状,我国在2016年发布的《中国制造2025》行动纲领中把海洋工程装备和高技术船舶作为十大重点发展领域之一,希望通过高端装备和技术实现船舶制造业的转型升级。 船体外板作为保证船体水密、承受外水压力、抵抗波浪冲击的重要部分,其加工时间占船体建造总工时的20%~30%,直接影响整艘船的建造周期和质量。但目前国内大部分船厂对于船体外板的弯曲成形加工基本依靠人工实现,存在加工效率低、废品率高、能耗高等问题。对此本课题将对船体外板成形智能装备的关键技术进行研究,希望通过相关技术改变传统的人工加工方式。具体的研究内容包括以下几点: 1.船体外板三维测量与网格重构技术。 为解决船体加工外板的精准定位问题,本课题主要开展了以下研究工作:首先研究三维激光扫描技术,获取加工外板的点云数据。然后研究外板点云数据预处理和点云聚类提取技术,从测量数据中提取出加工外板的三维点云数据。接着研究船体外板自由曲线网格重构技术,将大量杂乱的外板点云数据转化为少量规则排列的网格点。最后,研究外板测量坐标系到机器人运动坐标系的三维坐标系变换技术,实现机器人对加工外板的定位。 2.加工参数专家规则推理技术。 为了解决船体外板加工参数自动推理问题,本课题主要开展了以下研究工作:首先学习船体外板成形加工工艺,设计船体外板加工工艺规则库的总体架构模型。然后研究船体外板分类规则、焰道推理规则和加热参数经验规则,并通过计算机语言对经验规则进行描述。最后研究船体外板加工参数规则推理机制,将专家规则转化机器人能执行的控制文本,指导机器人进行实际的加工。 3.二次加工参数规划方法。 为实现船体外板二次加工参数的自动规划,以及保证机器人不进入死循环加工状态,本课题主要开展了以下研究工作:首先研究加工外板成形评价方法,全面分析加工外板当前的成形情况。其次,研究以角变形焰道轨迹规划方法为基础结合偏差分解、角变形量计算和成形评价等技术为基础的二次加工参数规划方法,实现船体外板二次加工参数的规划。最后,研究外板加工收敛性评判依据,保证外板成形加工过程的收敛性。 最后本课题所研究的技术将集成到广州广船国际股份有限公司与广东工业大学联合研制的龙门式水火弯板机器人中。为机器人提供实际加工外板的三维坐标信息,以及外板加工时的加工工艺参数。最终实现船体外板的智能化加工,改变船体外板加工工艺过分依赖人工的现状。 关键词:智能机器人;规则推理;三维测量;水火弯板

英文摘要

Shipbuilding, as a comprehensive and strategic industry for water transport, marine resource exploitation and national defense, is a powerful underpinner for China to realize its grand strategy of becoming a maritime powerhouse. However, China's shipbuilding industry still lags behind its counterparts in Japan and Korea in terms of automated equipment and technology. To change this situation, China launched its "Made in China 2025" initiative in 2016, designating marine engineering equipment and hi-tech vessels as among the ten key priority areas of development, in a hope of achieving transformation and upgrade in sectors of high-end equipment and technology and shipbuilding. Ship hull plates are the key part for realizing water tightness, withstanding external water pressure and resisting waves, whose processing time accounts for 20%~30% of the whole hull building time, which directly influences the building cycle and vessel quality. However, the bend-forming processing in most of Chinese shipyards are carried out manually, an approach troubled by low processing efficiency, high reject rat and vast energy consumption. Therefore, this project seeks to look at key technologies concerning smart molding equipment of ship hull plates, in hope of transforming the traditional manual approaches. And the specific research contents are as follows: 1.3D measurement and mesh reconstruction method of ship hull plates. In order to solve the problem of precise positioning of the ship hull plates, the following research works were mainly carried out in this project. Firstly, the 3D laser scanning technology was studied to obtain the point clouds of the ship hull plates. Secondly, the technologies of preprocessing and clustering extraction of point clouds were studied. And the point clouds of the ship hull plates were extracted from the measurement data by the technologies. Then, the freeform curve reconstruction method of ship hull plates was studied to transform the large and scattered point clouds into regularly arranged grid points. Finally, in order to realize the positioning of the ship hull plates, the 3D coordinate transformation technology of the measurement coordinate system to the robot movement coordinate system was studied. 2.Expert rules reasoning technology for processing parameters. In order to solve the problem of automatic reasoning of the processing parameters of the plates, the following research works were mainly carried out in this project. First of all, the forming process of the ship hull plate was studied, and the architectural of the process rule database of the plate was designed. Then, the classification rules and the inference rules of flame path and the inference rules of heating parameters of the plate were studied. And then all the rules were described by the computer language. Lastly, the rules inference mechanisms of processing parameters of the plates were studied. And the rules would be transformed the into control texts, which could be executed by the robot and guided the robot to carry out the actual processing, by the rules inference mechanisms. 3.Programming method for the secondary processing parameter. In order to realize the automatic programming of the secondary processing parameters of the plates, and ensure that the robot does not enter the dead-end processing state, the following research works were mainly carried in this paper. Firstly, the evaluation method for ship hull plates' process molding was studied, and the current forming state of the outer shell was comprehensively analyzed. Secondly, the programming method for the secondary processing parameter was studied, which were based on the flame path programming method based on angular deformation and the angular deformation calculation method and the evaluation method, to realize the programming of the secondary processing parameters of the ship hull plates. Finally, the basis for judging the convergence of the ship hull plates processing was studied to ensure the convergence of the forming process. At last, the methods studied in this subject would be integrated into the longmen type line heating robot, which was developed by Guangzhou Guangchuan International Co., LTD and Guangdong University of Technology. And the methods would provide the 3D information of the plates for the robot, as well as the flame path and the processing parameters. Finally, the methods will realize the intelligent processing of the ship hull plates, and change the situation of the manual processing of the ship hull plates. Keywords: intelligent robot; rule reasoning; 3D measurement; line heating

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