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庚子事变文学研究
中文摘要

发生于19世纪与20世纪之交的庚子事变不仅给国家带来了深重苦难,也深刻影响了中国的历史进程。这场伴随着20世纪来临的重要事变在近代文学中也得到了全面充分的反映。史学界一直以来都十分重视对庚子事变的研究。然而孕育自庚子事变的诗词、小说、戏曲、说唱等各类文学作品虽得到了不同程度的挖掘,但相比于历史研究,关于庚子事变的文学研究要冷清许多,不论是宏观研究还是微观研究都还存在许多空白。事实上,对作为特定时代产物的庚子事变文学加以整体的、系统的、细致的研究不仅能够集中且深刻地展现近代文士对庚子事变这一家国劫难的认知与判断,而且可以为后人观察庚子事变时期人们的精神风貌与社会状况打开另外一扇窗户。鉴于此,本文力图通过文史互证的方式,兼顾整体研究与个案研究,并结合知人论世、文本细读的方法来对有关庚子事变的诗词、小说、戏曲、说唱作一全面、具体且深入的解析。 虽然作为历史事件的庚子事变早已化为历史的云烟,飘逝远去。但于此事件的文学书写却并没有因庚子事变的结束而停止。在长达一个多世纪的时光流逝中,不断有关于庚子事变的文学文本出现。为了避免误解,必须说明本文论述的“庚子事变文学”是对近代文人创作的反映庚子事变的大量诗词、小说、说唱、戏曲等文学作品的统称。综合以上,文章分六章展开论述。 第一章对庚子事变文学产生的各方面背景予以揭示。第一、二节着重从分析义和团运动的兴起的重要原因,梳理庚子事变的历史进程来呈现庚子事变文学产生的历史背景。第三节从探讨嘉道以来经世致用思潮的勃兴对文学观念变革产生的重要影响以及文学观念变革的具体内容出发来考察庚子事变文学产生的思想、文学背景。 第二章对庚子事变的诗歌抒写进行概述。晚清庚子事变激发诗人们长歌当哭,留下了一批宝贵的诗歌文献。据笔者不完全统计,约有160多位诗人创作了3300余首庚子事变诗歌。为略窥以庚子事变为重大题材的诗歌创作概貌,第一节分类介绍了代表诗人及其诗作,具体以身居庙堂,主张“剿拳和洋”的诗人;困处北京的诗人;在两宫西逃期间随侍其左右的诗人;偏安东南的诗人;筹谋勤王的诗人作为分类说明的依据。第二节分庚子事变进程的记录;社会血泪史的呈现;时代风貌的反映三个层面论述了庚子事变诗歌的“诗史”价值。为了展现“庚子”诗在叙事艺术方面的特色,第三节从叙事方法入手,概括、分析了诗人是如何以诗题、诗序、诗注叙事;片段呈现式叙事;组诗叙事;长篇铺敷来进行诗意化的叙事。 第三章主要结合时局走向、诗人经历及其诗歌创作来勾勒庚子事变时期的诗人的心路历程。第一节重在推导庚子事变时期诗人对外心态由求战转向求和。第二节选择蒋楷、李希圣、易顺鼎三位代表诗人对庚子事变时期诗人济世无门的失落心态作一微观考察。第三节分析袁昶、康有为、周馥、敦崇等诗人在庚子事变期间产成孤独心态的原因以及他们各自的孤独心态在诗歌中的反映。第四节着重探讨乌目山僧(黄宗仰)、赵必振、潘飞声等诗人创作的《<庚子纪念图>题词》所传达出来的诗人的羞耻心态。 第四章试图在尊重基本史实的前提下,以庚子事变诗歌为线索,研讨慈禧太后与珍妃这两位与庚子事变有着密切关联的女性历史人物在诗人笔下的形象特征,进而揭示诗人在这两位历史人物身上所贯注的思想情感。第一节主要对关于慈禧太后的庚子事变诗歌加以梳理、分析,力图还原慈禧太后在庚子事变时期的真实面目并揭露诗人对慈禧太后的情感态度,并由此认定在国家面临重重危机时,慈禧太后与一个最高统治者应有的素养和精神面貌还有很大距离。第二节主要围绕诗人对珍妃死宫井事的题咏议论展开解析。通过细读文本,可以了解到对珍妃与光绪帝爱情悲剧的同情;对现实政治的讽刺与家国兴亡的感伤是关于珍妃之死的诗歌中所包含的重要意蕴。 第五章探讨《庚子秋词》的作者生平、“情性”含蕴与整体风格。第一节就创作《庚子秋词》的王鹏运、朱祖谋、刘福姚、宋育仁等四位词人的生平、政治生涯及词学几方面作概述。第二节对《庚子秋词》所包孕的种种愁情加以梳理、分析,进而得出词人的愁情是由乱而生,对国家、民族前途命运的忧愁;对政治理想难以实现的悲愁;对生活流离、人生短暂的哀愁是《庚子秋词》愁情的主要内涵。第三节在探讨陈廷焯《白雨斋词话》所提出的“沉郁”说的基础上,分析《庚子秋词》在比兴寄托、用典、章法布局的等方面的艺术特点,进而证明“沉郁”实可代表《庚子秋词》的整体词风。 第六章以典型个案分析的方式论述关于庚子事变题材的小说、说唱、戏曲作品。第一节分析连梦青《邻女语》所展现的封建末世的全景图画。第二节论述吴趼人《恨海》如何通过叙写两对男女在庚子事变时期所遭遇的爱情悲剧来展现挣扎在乱世中的普通个体的悲剧命运,进而论证吴趼人主张以“恢复旧道德”作为拯救国家、人民的重要手段。第三节分析林纾《剑腥录》“兼贻史料”与“自写风怀”的创作特色,从中可发现林纾主张以改良维新的方式来挽救国家。第四节探讨陆士谔《孽海花续编》所表现出来的鼓吹资产阶级革命的思想特点。第五节探讨李伯元《庚子国变弹词》在艺术化再现庚子事变全貌时所表现出来的主要创作特色。第六节分别探析林纾《蜀鹃啼传奇》、陈季衡《武陵春传奇》、赵祥瑗、吴梅《枯井泪杂剧》、包天笑《燕支井》在思想内容与艺术表现方面的重要特点。 综合以上已大致描叙出近代文人笔下的庚子事变文学的整体图景。最后,在搜集关于庚子事变诗人的生平资料的基础上,本文还编制了“庚子事变诗人群体考论简表”附于文后,表由姓名、字号、籍贯、生卒年、生平概况、庚子活动、庚子诗作、资料来源等栏目组成,能够为庚子事变诗歌研究提供一定的资料与线索。但由于本人学识、精力有限,还有很多创作有庚子事变诗歌的诗人生平未及考论,特此说明。 关键词:庚子事变;近代文士;文学书写;情性含蕴;现实反思

英文摘要

The Gengzi incident,which happened in nineteenth Century and twentieth Century, not only brought heavy suffering to the country, but also deeply influenced the historical process of China. This important incident accompanied by the twentieth Century has also been fully reflected in modern literature. Historians have always attached great importance to research on gengzi incident, research results are also very rich. Although all kinds of literary works which reflect Gengzi incident, such as poems, novels, dramas, have been excavated in different degrees, but the literary research on the Geng incident which are more cold compared to the historical research, and there are still many research gaps in both macro and micro studies. In fact, the whole, systematic and meticulous study of the Geng incident as a product of a specific era can not only concentrate and deeply reveal the cognition and judgment of the modern intellectuals on the Gengzi incident, but also open another window for the future generations to observe the spiritual features and social conditions of the people in the time of the Gengzi incident. In view of this, this article tries to make a comprehensive, specific and in-depth analysis of the poesy, novel, opera about the Gengzi incident by combining the whole research and case study with the way of the literature and history, and combining the methods of understanding the world and reading the text. Although as a historical event of gengzi incident have already become history of clouds, gone away. But in the event of literary writing but did not stop because of the end of the gengzi incident. In more than a century of time, there have been about the emergence of literary text gengzi. In order to avoid unnecessary entanglement and misunderstanding, it is necessary to explain that the "Gengzi incident literature" described in this article is a general name for a large number of literary works such as poems, novels, rap, opera and other literary works reflecting the Gengzi incident of the modern literati who have witnessed the Gengzi incident. Comprehensive above, the article is divided into six chapters to discuss. The first chapter reveals the background of Gengzi literature in all aspects. The first section and second section focuses on the analysis of the important reasons for the rise of the Boxer Movement and combing the historical process of the Gengzi incident to show the historical background of the Geng literature. The third section examines the ideological and literary background of the Gengzi literature from the discussion of the important influence of the flourishing trend of thought on literary ideas and the specific content of the change of literary ideas. The second chapter is gengzi poetry summary. In the late Qing Dynasty gengzi poetry to inspire people, leaving a number of valuable documents of poetry. According to incomplete statistics, there are about 160 poets wrote more than 3300 pieces of gengzi poetry. In order to see a brief overview of the poetic creation of the Geng incident, the first section introduces the poets representing the poets and their poems, the poets who live in the temple advocated destroy the boxer ; the poets in Beijing; the poets who serve them in the two Palace during the West escape; the poet of Pian Andong south; the poets who plan to work king king as the poets. The basis of the classification. The record of the second section of the event of the Geng incident, the presentation of the history of social tears, and the three aspects of the reflection of the times, discussed the value of the "history of poetry" in the poetry of the boxer's incident. In order to show the characteristics of the "boxson" poetry in narrative art, the third section, starting with the narrative method, summarizes and analyzes how the poets are written in poetry, poetry, poetry and narrative, the presentation of fragments, the formation of poetry and the poetic narrative. The third chapter mainly combines the trend of the times, the experience of poets and their poetry creation to outline the psychological process of the poets in the period of the Gengzi incident. The first section is derived from the war to and is an important feature of gengzi era poet foreign mentality. The second section selects Jiang Kai, Li Xisheng and Yi Shun Ding's three representative poets to study the poet's loss of mind in the gengzi period. The third section analyses the reasons for Yuan Chang, Kang Youwei, Zhou Fu and dun Chong and other poets to produce a lonely state of mind during the boxer incident, and the reflection of their respective lonely mentality in the poetry. The fourth section focuses on the discussion of the poets' shame mentality of the poets" ‘ Commemorative painting ’ inscription" by the poets of Wu Mu Shan monk (Huang Zongyang), Zhao Bizhen, Pan Feisheng and other poets. The fourth chapter, on the premise of respecting the basic historical facts, takes the poets of the Gengzi incident as a clue to discuss the image characteristics of the two female historical figures, which are closely related to the Empress dowager Ci Xi and the concubine incident in the poets, and then reveal the thoughts and feelings of the poets in the two historical figures. The first section mainly carding and analyzing the poets of the Geng incident of the Empress Dowager Ci Xi, trying to restore the true face of the Empress Dowager Ci Xi in the boxer incident and revealing the poet's emotional attitude to Empress Dowager the Ci Xi, and thus affirms the accomplishment and spirit of the queen Ci Xi and a supreme ruler when the country faces many crises. The face is still a lot of distance. The second section mainly gengzi poetry of Tiyong Zhenfei’s death to sort out, analysis. Through a detailed reading of the text, we can understand the sympathy for the love tragedy of the imperial concubine and Guangxu emperor. The irony of the real politics and the sentimentality of the rise and fall of the family are the important implications of the poems about the death of the princess. The fifth chapter discusses the biography of the author, "disposition" connotation and overall style of "Gengzi Autumn Ci". The first section gives a summary of the life, political career and CI studies of the four poets, Wang Pengyun, Zhu Zumou, Liu Fuyao, Song Yuren, and so on in the "Gengzi autumn Ci". The second section combs and analyses all sorts of worries about the "Gengzi autumn Ci", and then draws a conclusion that the sorrows of the poets are disordered and bom, worry about the future and destiny of the nation and the nation; the sorrow of the political ideal is difficult to realize; the sorrow of life and life is the main connotation of the sorrow of the autumn Ci of the boxer son. The third section, on the basis of discussing the "gloomy" theory put forward by Chen Tingzhuo's "Bai Yu Hua Cihua", analyzes the artistic features of the " Gengzi autumn Ci" in the aspects of the consign, the allusions and the layout of the style of the boxer's autumn words, and then proves that "depression" can actually represent the whole word wind of the "Gengzi autumn Ci". In the sixth chapter, typical case analysis way on gengzi novels, opera works. The first section analyzes the panoramic picture of the feudal era in Lian Meng Qing's novel of “adjacent female language”. The second section discusses how Wu Jianren "hate the sea" shows the tragic fate of the ordinary individual struggling in the chaos by narrating the tragic love tragedies of the two pairs of men and women in the time of the Geng incident, and then demonstrates that the people of Wu Jianren who take "restore the old morality" as the important means to save the country and the people. The third section analyses the creative features of Lin Shu's "sword fishy", "the history of the mussel" and "the self writing style". From this, we can find that Lin Shu advocated the reformative way to save the country. The fourth section discusses the ideological tendency of Lu Shie "Niehaihua show sequel" advocate of the bourgeois revolution. The fifth section explores the characteristics of Li Boyuan's "Gengzi Guobian Tanci" in the artistic reproduction of the current picture of the Geng incident. The sixth section analyses the important characteristics of Lin Shu's "Shu Juanti legend", Chen Jiheng "Wuling spring legend", Bao Tianxiao's "Yan Zhi well", Zhao Xiangyuan and Wu Mei "dry well tears Zaju" in the ideological content. The above has been roughly describes the gengzi literature as a whole picture of modern literati's works. Finally, on the basis of the collection of the biographical data about the poets of the Geng incident, this paper also compiled a "summary of the poets of the Gengzi incident", which was composed of names,Zi Hao , birthplaces, years of birth and death, life situation, the activities of the Geng, the poets of the boxer, the sources of information and so on. The study provides some information and clues. However, due to my limited knowledge and energy, I still have many poets who wrote poems written by Geng Zi. Key words: Gengzi incident; Modern literati; Literary writing;Emotional implication; realistic reflection

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