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晚清天文教育与天文启蒙
中文摘要

西方天文学在19-20世纪期间对我国天文学产生了深远的影响。我国传统天文学主要服务于历法制定、星占预卜等,并与儒家、佛教、道教思想相依表里。随着明末清初耶稣会士入华,西方近代天文学作为“通天捷径”始入中国,但囿于宫廷之中,仅面向皇帝、朝堂大臣等上层阶级。鸦片战争,尤其是第二次鸦片战争之后,天文学科的西学东渐开始呈现强劲势头,以中西学堂、教科书、报纸、文学作品等多维度流向晚清民众,推动中国天文学从宫廷走向民间。 笔者通过参阅中国国家图书馆、上海图书馆、北京大学图书馆、复旦大学图书馆、陕西师范大学图书馆等馆藏晚清天文书籍,并结合“全国报刊索引”、“申报(雕龙平台)”等网络数据库,对晚清天文专著及报刊专栏等进行系统全面的调查。在爬梳整理原始文献的基础上,对晚清天文著作及相关教育活动进行一系列探讨,以期描述晚清天文知识启蒙与时人思想变革。为了使本文逻辑清晰,笔者按照时间顺序对晚清教科书进行叙述和分析,并将每一个特征时间段内的著作展开详细说明,以阐述其对晚清近代教育与时人启蒙之果效。 正文部分除绪论、结语外,另包括七章。第一章主要介绍鸦片战争至“学校教科书委员会”成立期间,传教士携来早期天文教科书的雏形。此时的天文知识作为地理、圣经教义、英语的辅助内容,不足以构成近现代天文教育的载体。而另一本专门介绍天文学知识的《谈天》,鉴于其计算艰深繁琐,内容深奥难明,其影响力仅限于部分学者之中,难以达到晚清社会天文启蒙之高度。 第二章主要介绍“学校教科书委员会”成立早期,一系列体系化、学科化的西方科学普及丛书移译入华。其中,文章重点对《格致启蒙》丛书之《天文启蒙》进行深入研究和分析。通过对《天文启蒙》两个中译本与底本的比对,指出此期西书中译所存在的问题,同时分析该书所传播的新知识及影响。总体而言,该书代表着天文学科的西书中译逐步开始规范化、体系化。 第三章主要介绍在“学校教科书委员会”成立之后,尽管国内天文教科书译著工作得到了规范化和体系化,但是直到京师同文馆天文算学馆建立,国内天文学走向实用教学层面。天文算学馆为洋务派学习西方坚船利炮的产物,其课程教授、考试设定、星台建造等均以“实用”为初衷,其天文教科书《星学发轫》亦教授天文仪器的操作规范与测量原理,天文测量的方法与计算等实用天文学内容。然而,无论馆中教学还是教科书,其影响力均颇为有限。 第四章主要论述登州文会馆的天文教育教学活动,重点探究天文教习赫士编译的《天文揭要》、《天文初阶》,以及在两书基础上参考多部西方天文著作、融合西方较新的天文观测和理论编纂而成的《天文新编》。登州文会馆的天文教学,基于上述具备逻辑性、时效性、系统性的教科书,为我国近现代天文工作培育诸多人才,文会馆也发展成为中国高等院校天文教育的鼻祖。 第五章“国人自编和创作的天文启蒙读物”,是国人对西方天文学科认识逐步深化的表征和结果。本章主要介绍国人自编和创作天文启蒙读物的起步、发展。19世纪末20世纪初,国人开始主动传播科学文化,不仅自编天文教材,且识字、歌谣、名物等读本内容换为西方近代天文学知识,同时,创办的儿童报纸、创作的文学作品中也囊括近代天文知识,这些均成为一种启蒙儿童甚至国人的有益形式。 第六、七章为晚清天文启蒙成效研究。第六章以1910年哈雷彗星回归为研究视角,针对社会各阶层对此特殊天象的反响展开群像研究。1910年哈雷彗星回归之际,钦天监的记录,各地政府颁布的官牍,众多有识之士的观测、行文甚至学堂学生的演讲,对此天象均秉持一种客观、科学的态度。这些文字语言皆向大众传播有关彗星的客观观测记录、基本科学知识等,逐步取代传统彗星占中的迷信之语。第七章以中国本土传教士黄伯禄的中西历日工作为切入点,他自制的中西对照历表不仅时间跨度长,并包含甲子纪年纪月纪日、王位纪年、闰月等中国传统计时体系中的特殊符号,而且换算优于西方,准确性得以验证。该历表不仅为当时及后世学者编制历表提供蓝本和范式,还为研究中国天文、宗教等领域的西方学者提供信息参考,成为天文启蒙卓有成效的代表人物。 本文主要探讨晚清时期天文学从宫廷发展至民间的传播历程,旨在梳理天文教科书由西书中译转至国人自编的脉络、天文教育从宫廷神学至学堂课程的路径。进而,加深有关晚清时期天文知识逐步脱离四书、五经的过程以及传教士“科学传教”演变过程的理解,增进对于晚清时期天文教育和知识启蒙的思考和认知。 关键词:天文教科书;晚清教育;天文启蒙;《星学发轫》;《天文新编》

英文摘要

Western astronomy affected China traditional ones a lot, in 19-20〓 century. The traditional astronomy in ancient China is mainly utilized to formulate calendars, foretell the destiny etc., accompanied with related contents in Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism. The western scientific astronomy began to take part in China as a ‘shortcut to the heaven’ in late Ming and early Qing, since missionaries came to China. However astronomy is a royal subject then, oriented to the emperor and ministers only. After First and Second Opium War (1840, 1860), scientific astronomy resonated its strength in spreading, which is so-called ‘Western Learning to the East’, in education (modem schools, text books) and media (newspaper, writings). At the same time, astronomy started to become a public culture, but limited content. We investigated the monographs and media contents comprehensively in this work, according the writings in library collections, i.e. ‘China Central Library’, ‘Shanghai library’, ‘Peking University library’, ‘Fudan University library’, ‘Shaanxi Normal University library’, and electronic databases ‘CNBKSY’ and ‘Shun Pao’. After consulting the original writings, we discussed the writings and educations in late Qing, to summarize the evolutions of scientific astronomy to public thinking at that time. To make it clear, we present this thesis in time order. In additional we demonstrate some typical writings (translations) specifically in each period. We organize this thesis as below: In Chapter 1, we demonstrate the early stage of astronomy spreading in late Qing, which is between the First Opium War and establishment of ‘School and TextbooksSeriesCommittee’ (shortly ‘Committee’), especially related to the textbooks from western world by missionaries. In these decades, astronomy is not a specific subject, but additions of geometry, the bible and English educations. Although Tan Tian is a astronomic specific writing in this peroid, which is full of complicated contents, who hampered Tan Tianio be enlightenment of astronomy in China. In fact, Tan Tian only effected professional scholars. In chapter 2, we focus on the early stage after the ‘Committee’ was established. This committee was aimed to standardizing textbooks, especially translated ones of astronomy in China. Specifically, we studied Tianwen Qimeng, who is the textbook of astronomy of Gezhi Qimeng series. By comparing the discrepancies of these two translations with original writing, we figured out the issues in translating manners. On the other hand, this textbook acted an important role of spreading of western astronomic knowledge in China. In conclusion, this textbook in the first milestone of standardization of translations of western writings to China. In chapter 3, We introduce the education of Practical astronomy in Capital Tung-wen College. ItsCurriculum education, examination setting and construction of the observatory, the original intention is practicability.Its textbook Xingxue Farewteaches the operation and principleof astronomic equipment, the method and calculation of Astronomical measurement.Although this school is application-oriented, its influence of astronomy spreading in China is limited. In chapter 4, we introduce the peak of astronomic education: Tengchow college, in where to learn Astronomical Disclosure and Basic astronomyand other western astronomic writings based on these two, i.e., New astronomy. The astronomic education in Tengchow college take the same path of western astronomic process, without losing systematicness and logicality. In this way, Tengchow college cultivated many astronomic professional talents, and then became the originator of ‘School of Astronomy’ of colleges and universities in China. In chapter 5, we introduce the astronomic textbooks made by Chinese people ourselves, after Chinese people studied western astronomic textbooks carefully. In this period, Chinese people began to be proactive in spreading science, i.e. making astronomic textbooks, and compiling literacy readers and ballads with modern western astronomic knowledge. Furthermore, new developed Children newspaper, even novels consist modem astronomic knowledge. This had become a phenomenon from then on. In chapter 6, we take ‘returning of Hailey’s comet’ in 1910 as example, to analysis the social sensations of each stage on this specific astronomic phenomenon. During that period, both the government and the society keep scientific and objective on this activity and explain this phenomenon to the public with some observing reports and astronomic knowledge. Up to then, Chinese people began to extinguish the panic and fear of comets. In chapter 7, we take Peter Hoang’s work on converting the ancient Chinese calendar to Julian calendar as example. Peter Hoang described the Chinese timing system including the solar and lunar calendar, the Sexagenary cycle, BaiKe system, proposed a converting calculation different from western scholars, and compiled a long span of Chinese-Western calendar. Moreover, the correctness of his calendar could be verified. His worknot only provided important time data to Western scholars, but also became a blueprint to make calendars, therefore, Peter Hoang made an significant contribution in culture exchange between China and Western counties. This thesis is mainly to discuss the effects of western astronomic knowledge in late Qing, to clarify the process from the textbook translation to made-in-China textbooks, as well as the education of astronomic. Furthermore, this thesis describes the evolution from traditional Confucian style to science, and advance the understanding of astronomic enlightenment education in late Qing. Key Words: Astronomy textbooks; Education in late Qing; Astronomical Enlightenment; An Introduction to Practical Astronomy; Elements of Astronomy

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