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邓小平关于改革的意识形态话语及其发展研究
中文摘要

身处改革的攻坚期和深水区,中国共产党面临着“思想观念的障碍”和“利益固化的藩篱”。如何最大限度地凝聚改革共识,将发展优势转化为话语优势,为进一步推进改革提供更有力的思想保障,需要我们从意识形态建设的高度加以考量。改革开放作为“当代中国最鲜明的特色”和中国共产党“最鲜明的旗帜”,蕴含着深刻的意识形态的思想内涵,这些内涵,需要通过意识形态话语来加以表征。回顾历史,我国改革开放和现代化建设总设计师邓小平同志通过建构关于改革的意识形态话语,打破了僵化保守的话语体系,掌握了改革的意识形态话语权,启动了改革开放的时代进程。这一历史经验值得总结。 作为由“改革”“意识形态”和“话语”等词语所构成的复合型概念,“邓小平关于改革的意识形态话语”具有自身独特的内涵,是不可替代的。它指的是邓小平同志在20世纪70年代末至90年中期,在发动和推行改革的历史进程中所提出的一系列有关社会主义改革的具有强烈意识形态意蕴的概念、判断和表述等的集合。这些话语通过邓小平本人的讲话、文章以及中国共产党的文件、报告等载体加以呈现,反映着邓小平关于我国改革的价值选择、战略构思和话语艺术等。邓小平在继承和发展马克思主义关于社会矛盾理论的基础上,对当代中国的社会矛盾作出正确判断,并将社会主义基本矛盾、主要矛盾和经济建设这一中心任务统一起来,为其关于改革的意识形态话语建构铺垫了坚实的理论基石。 在基本内容上,邓小平关于改革的意识形态话语可分为改革的价值论话语和改革的方法论话语两大类,前者主要回应人们关于“什么是改革”“为什么要改革”“改革的目标是什么”“改革的效果怎么样”等问题,一旦确立,能够为改革提供相对恒定的价值观引导和精神支撑;后者主要回应人们关于“改革什么”“谁来改革”“在改革中应怎么想”“在改革中应怎么做”等问题,能够为改革实施提供相对宏观的指导原则。 邓小平关于改革的意识形态话语有着自身的建构理路。从产生历史背景看,它既是应对国内困境和国际压力的必然选择,也离不开和平与发展的时代主题、 “穷则思变,乱久思治”的社会内驱力以及邓小平的个人品质等现实条件的支撑。从静态的结构分布看,它立足中国实践,以增强话语解释力为内在动力,旨在倡导和传播改革的价值观,并通过语言这一载体加以彰显,形成了事实层面、逻辑层面、价值层面和表达层面渐次铺展、相辅相成的基本布局。从动态的规约机制看,按照话语产生、筛选、优化和传播的基本环节,它在形成中受到动力机制、筛选机制、平衡机制和传播机制的共同作用。 党的十五大将邓小平理论确立为全党的指导思想,为邓小平关于改革的意识形态话语的时代衍进提供了重要契机。十五大以来,邓小平关于改革的价值论话语在丰富中持续更新了改革的价值目标,不断深化了改革的价值理念,更加凸显了改革的价值功能;关于改革的方法论话语在发展中坚持拓展改革的思想方法,不断强化改革的实践方法,注重创新改革的话语方法。梳理这一衍进历程,并不意味着对不同历史阶段的话语进行孰优孰劣的比较,而是基于党的历次代表会议报告等历史文本所做的一种学理性分析,旨在总结规律性特征,为话语建构提供经验性参照。整体看来,其所呈现出的主要特征有:变与“守”相结合、变与“迁”相结合、变与“定”相结合、变与“化”相结合。 邓小平关于改革的意识形态话语的形成与发展,为进一步建构中国共产党关于改革的意识形态话语提供了重要的历史启示:在出发点和落脚点上,话语建构要面向现实问题,顺应时代诉求;在内容上,话语建构须以要素为支撑,不断打造基本概念、判断和表述等,注重彰显改革的价值合理性;在方式上,话语建构应做好“顶层设计”,明确建构的目标是中国风格、中国特色、中国气派,原则是坚持一元化和多样性相统一、继承性与创新性相统一、现实性与前瞻性相统一、自主性与开放性相统一,重点是加强意识形态话语和学术话语、日常话语问的融诵。 关键词:邓小平;改革;意识形态话语;中国共产党;话语建构

英文摘要

In the reform of the "critical stage" and "deep water area", the Chinese Communist Party (CPC) is facing the "ideological barriers" and "Interest solidification barriers". How to build the reform consensus, turn the development advantages into discourse advantage and provide more stronger ideological protection for further reform, is required to be considered from the height of ideological construction. As "the most distinctive feature of contemporary China" and the "most distinctive banner" of the CPC, the reform and opening up has a profound ideological connotation, which needs to be characterized by ideological discourse. Reviewing the history of reform and opening up and modernization construction, the chief architect Deng Xiaoping had broken down the rigid and conservative discourse system, mastered the ideology of discourse, launched the era of reform and opening-up process through the construction of ideological discourse about reform. This historical experience is worth summarizing. As a complex concept, which composes of words such as "reform", "ideology" and "discourse", "Deng Xiaoping's ideological discourse on reform" has a unique meaning and is irreplaceable. It is proposed by Deng Xiaoping in the historical practice of promoting reform and opening up, which is a collection of concepts, categories, statements about socialist reform with a strong ideological connotation. This discourse was presented through Deng Xiaoping's own speeches, articles, and the CPC’s documents, reports and other documents, reflecting Deng Xiaoping's value judgment, strategy idea and discourse art of China's reform. Deng Xiaoping judged the social contradictions of contemporary China correctly by inheriting and transcending Marxism social contradictions. He built the philosophical foundation for the historical appearance of the ideological discourse on reform by unifying the basic contradictions, major contradictions and the central tasks of economic construction. In the basic content, Deng Xiaoping's ideological discourse on reform can be classified into two categories: discourse about the value of reform and discourse about the methodology of reform. The former mainly responds to people's questions about "What is reform", "why reform", "what is the goal of reform" and "what is the effect of reform", to provide value support for the initiation and implementation of the reform. The latter mainly responds to people's questions of "What is the subject of reform", "who will reform", "How to think in reform" and " How to do in reform", to provide relatively macroscopic guidelines for reform implementation. Deng Xiaoping′s discourse on reform has its own way of construction. From the historical background, it is the inevitable choice to deal with domestic dilemma and international pressure. It is also inseparable from the times and its theme of peace and development, the internal drive of “Adversity leads to prosperity, chaos leads to governance", Deng Xiaoping's personal quality and other realistic conditions. From the view of the distribution of static structure, it is based on the practice of China. The interpretation of discourse is enhanced as the internal power to advocate and disseminate the values of reform, and is highlighted by the carrier of language. This forms the complementary basic layouts on facts level, logical level, value level and expression level. From the dynamic regulatory mechanism, according to the basic aspects of discourse generation, screening, optimization and dissemination, it is influenced by the dynamic mechanism, the screening mechanism, the balance mechanism and the communication mechanism. The Communist Party of China took Deng Xiaoping theory as the guiding ideology of the whole party on the 15th National Party Congress, which provided an important opportunity for the evolution of Deng Xiaoping's reform discourse. From then on, it shows more development. Firstly, the discourse about reform value continues to update the target of reform, deepen the value concept of reform and highlight the value function of reform. Secondly, the discourse about reform methodology expands, which adhere to expand the thinking method of reform, strengthening the practice method of reform and innovating expression ways of reform. Combing the development context does not mean the comparison and judgments between the discourses in different historical periods, but rather a rational analysis based on the historical texts such as the party's meetings report. It is intended to summarize the regularity and provide empirical reference for discourse construction. As a whole, the historical development of discourse presents four main features, including dialectical unity of changing and “keeping”, changing and “adjusting”, changing and fixing, and changing and civilizing. The formation and development of Deng Xiaoping ′s discourse on reform, provides an important historical inspiration for the further construction of the CPC's ideological discourse on reform. At the starting point and the foothold, the discourse construction should face the reality and conform to the demands of the times. In the content, the discourse construction must be supported by the elements, constantly building basic concepts, judgments and expressions to emphasize the core value of reform. In the method, the discourse constructs should have a good top-level design and make the purpose of Chinese characteristics, Chinese style and Chinese manner clearly. The principles are the insistence of integrating the unity and variety, the realistic and forward-looking, the inheritance and innovation, the autonomy and openness, and the emphasis is to strengthen the accommodation between the ideological discourse and the academic and daily discourse. Key words: Deng Xiaoping; Reform; Ideological discourse; CPC; Discourse Construct

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